Article 12

Transparent information, communication and modalities for the exercise of the rights of the data subject

1. The controller shall take appropriate measures to provide any information referred to in Articles 13 and 14 and any communication under Articles 15 to 22 and 34 relating to processing to the data subject in a concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language, in particular for any information addressed specifically to a child. The information shall be provided in writing, or by other means, including, where appropriate, by electronic means. When requested by the data subject, the information may be provided orally, provided that the identity of the data subject is proven by other means.

2. The controller shall facilitate the exercise of data subject rights under Articles 15 to 22. In the cases referred to in Article 11(2), the controller shall not refuse to act on the request of the data subject for exercising his or her rights under Articles 15 to 22, unless the controller demonstrates that it is not in a position to identify the data subject.

3. The controller shall provide information on action taken on a request under Articles 15 to 22 to the data subject without undue delay and in any event within one month of receipt of the request. That period may be extended by two further months where necessary, taking into account the complexity and number of the requests. The controller shall inform the data subject of any such extension within one month of receipt of the request, together with the reasons for the delay. Where the data subject makes the request by electronic form means, the information shall be provided by electronic means where possible, unless otherwise requested by the data subject.

4. If the controller does not take action on the request of the data subject, the controller shall inform the data subject without delay and at the latest within one month of receipt of the request of the reasons for not taking action and on the possibility of lodging a complaint with the Commissioner and seeking a judicial remedy.

5. Information provided under Articles 13 and 14 and any communication and any actions taken under Articles 15 to 22 and 34 shall be provided free of charge. Where requests from a data subject are manifestly unfounded or excessive, in particular because of their repetitive character, the controller may either:

  • (a) charge a reasonable fee taking into account the administrative costs of providing the information or communication or taking the action requested; or
  • (b) refuse to act on the request.

The controller shall bear the burden of demonstrating the manifestly unfounded or excessive character of the request.

6. Without prejudice to Article 11, where the controller has reasonable doubts concerning the identity of the natural person making the request referred to in Articles 15 to 21, the controller may request the provision of additional information necessary to confirm the identity of the data subject.

6A. The Commissioner may publish (and amend or withdraw)—

  • (a) standardised icons for use in combination with information provided to data subjects under Articles 13 and 14;
  • (b) a notice stating that other persons may publish (and amend or withdraw) such icons, provided that the icons satisfy requirements specified in the notice as to the information to be presented by the icons and the procedures for providing the icons.

6B. The Commissioner must not publish icons or a notice under paragraph 6A unless satisfied (as appropriate) that the icons give a meaningful overview of the intended processing in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner or that the notice will result in icons that do so.

7. If standardised icons are published as described in paragraph 6A (and not withdrawn), the information to be provided to data subjects pursuant to Articles 13 and 14 may be provided in combination with the icons. Where the icons are presented electronically they shall be machine-readable.


Relevant recitals 

(58), (59), (60), (73)

Important note about UK GDPR recitals

Recitals to the GDPR are saved into UK domestic law and apply to the interpretation of the UK GDPR. However, they have not been amended upon saving. This may mean that some recitals are no longer relevant if the corresponding provisions have not been retained in UK domestic law. (Tell me more.)

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